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پایگاه خبری شیمی - نیترو آرن های منفجره: TNT و پیکریک اسید

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چهارشنبه 16 مرداد 1392 ساعت 06:13 بعد از ظهر نظرات
نویسنده: سعید ایراندوست

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نیتراسیون کامل ارتو و پارا در متیل بنزن (تولوئن) یا فنل (بنزنول) تولید مشتق تری نیترو مربوط را می نماید که هر دو ماده منفجره قوی هستند: TNT و پپیکریک اسید. هر دو ترکیب از گذشته در ارتش و صنعت به عنوان ماده منفجره مورد استفاده داشته، زیرا روش تهیه آنها بسیار ساده می باشد. پیکریک اسید را می توان به سادگی از آزمایش آسپیرین خرد شده با KNO3 و H2SO4 تهیه نمود و روش آن در اینترنت آمده است. این روش ها بسیار خطرناک هستند و صدمات بسیار زیادی به کسانی که با حماقت خود سعی در تهیه آن کرده اند وارد نموده است.
تهیه TNT در مصارف نظامی به صورت استاندارد در آمده است و قدرت تخریبی سایر بمب ها با مقدار مشابه TNT آن مقایسه می شود. برای مثال، اولین بمب اتمی که در ۱۶ جولای ۱۹۵۴ در نیومکزیکو منفجر گردید معادل ۱۹۰۰۰ تن TNT بوده است. بمب اتمی منفجر شده در هیروشیما، ژاپن که منجر به مرگ ۱۴۰۰۰۰ نفر گردید معادل قدرت ۱۳۰۰۰ تن TNT است. گرچه این ارقام بسیار بزرگ هستند، در مقایسه با بمب هیدروژنی با قدرت تخریبی معادل ۱۰ میلیون تن TNT کوچک هستند. جهت مقایسه، تمام بمب های منفجر شده در جنگ جهانی دوم فقط معادل ۲ میلیون تن TNT بوده است.
پیکریک اسید کاربردهای دیگری در صنعت کبریت، چرم،باتری های الکتریکی و شیشه های رنگی دارد. آن را اسید می نامند زیرا گروه هیدروکسی به طور غیرعادی خاصیت اسیدی دارد و از HF قویتر است. این حالت به لیل اثر کشندگی سه گروه نیترو است.
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عنصر هفته
lactoze

فلزی است به رنگ سفید متمایل به آبی که بر اثر رطوبت هوا تیره رنگ می‌شود و در حین احتراق رنگ سبز براقی تولید می‌کند

من چه عنصـری هستم ؟

آرشیـو عناصـــر

  • مولکول هفته
    lactoze

    من تهدیدی برای زنبور عسل می باشم .

    من چه مولکولی هستم ؟

    آرشیـو مولــکول هــا

  • ابزار آزمایشگاهی
    نگاره برگزیده
    lactoze

    یک واحد صنعتی تصفیه آب به روش اسمز معکوس

    اسمز معکوس فرآیندی است که در آن از فشار برای معکوس نمودن جریان اسمزی آب از درون یک غشای نیمه‌تراوا استفاده می‌شود.

  • آرشیو
    روزنامه ها و خبرگزاریها

    نویسندگان
    تقویم
    کلیه حقوق این سایت محفوظ است. طراحـ ـقالبـ: ـنقاشــ